How did we write this study?

Four researchers from three countries have worked to answer the same questions focusing on their respective countries.

Legislation

On what basis do government authorities request information about citizens, from private corporations and social media companies?

In Practice

How often do government authorities request information about citizens, from private corporations and social media companies?

Politics and trends

How does the public react to leaks, revelations and public information about such requests?

Denmark, Poland and the United Kingdom were selected because they are similar to Sweden in many ways, yet have individual differences, which increases the likelihood of meaningful comparisons.
This research was conducted during 2014, hence the conclusions are based on data released before 2015.