What are the common frameworks of legislation in the EU and what do they look like?

Since all countries in the study are members of the European Union, there is overlapping legislation. The most relevant is the Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC), which was adopted in 199, and has been under revision since 2012. In the EU framework a directive is a goal set out by the EU that the Member States has to follow, but they are free to choose how they achieve that goal. Because of this, the legislations following the Data Protection Directive exist in all three countries, though the implementation differs.
The directive aims to regulate processing of personal data. Personal data covers a wide range of information pertaining to an individual. Everything from bank statements, cell phone metadata, genetic information and photos are included. Processing is defined as: “any operation or set of operations which is performed upon personal data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection, recording, organization, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, blocking, erasure or destruction”
All three countries are also bound by the European Convention on Human Rights and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights which among other things contains a right to privacy.